WHAT ARE FRAGRANCES
Classification of fragrances
Fragrances are usually divided into perfume families or groups, depending on the notes declared in their composition. The notes are divided into top notes - the most volatile, rapidly evaporating (citrus, aromatic herbs), heart notes (fruits, leaves, spices, flowers) and base, bottom notes (resins, balms, trees, animalistic notes, leather). According to the classification of the French Society, there are the following groups of fragrances: fougere, chypre, floral, oriental, leather and their subgroups.
Main aromatic groups:
Fougere Royale Houbigant is the founder and name of this group of fragrances. The fragrance was created in 1882 using an innovative synthetic substance at that time - coumarin (coumarin in low concentration has the smell of dry hay, and in high concentrations it smells like cinnamon, almonds, baked goods). It is believed that the creation of this fragrance gave rise to modern perfumery.
Sometimes the aromatic subgroup "Green" is distinguished, which is distinguished by notes of aromatic herbs (for example, rosemary) and freshly cut grass.
Aromatic aromas usually include the following notes: lavender, galbanum, coumarin (tonka bean), labdanum.
Examples of modern fragrances: Sauvage Christian Dior, Luna Rossa Carbon Prada, Egoiste Platinum Chanel, Mugler Fougere Furieuse.
Chypre takes its name from Chypre Coty, created in 1917. The basis of this fragrance is taken from the recipe of the flavored "Cypriot birds" (Oiselets de Chypre), which were produced in Cyprus in the 16th century.
Chypre scents typically include the following notes: citrus top notes (most often bergamot), floral (rose, jasmine) and resinous (labdanum) heart notes, and woody base notes (oak moss, patchouli, cedar, vetiver).
Examples of modern fragrances: Nomade Chloe, Chyprissime Mugler, No 19 Chanel, Antaeus Chanel.
Oriental, or oriental, fragrances originate from fragrances from the Middle East and India, but it was the development of classical French perfumery that gave the fragrances of this group their modern sound. A classic example of an oriental scent is Shalimar Guerlain, created in 1925. The base of the oriental scent is the so-called "amber / amber accord", created with the help of balsamic, resinous materials. In the fragrances of this group, animalistic aromas are often found, traditionally of natural origin, but now mainly synthetic substances are used due to the merciless destruction of animals by poachers, which are the source of raw materials, or natural ingredients obtained in a painless way for animals (wax, honey, African stone). Also in the oriental aroma there may be notes of spices (sometimes the subgroup of aromas "Spicy" is distinguished).
Oriental scents usually include the following notes: amber, vanilla, myrrh, musk, castoreum and others.
Examples of modern fragrances: Noir Pour Femme Tom Ford, Coco Chanel, A * Men Mugler, Manifesto Yves Saint Laurent.
Leather notes are sometimes used in compositions of other groups as base, lower chords. The leather note was previously transmitted using birch tar; now, due to its limitation in use, spices or synthetic leather substances are used.
Leather scents usually include the following notes: leather, tobacco and others.
Examples of modern fragrances: Cuir Impertinent Mugler, Bottega Veneta Pour Homme, Italian Leather Memo Paris.
Floral fragrances were among the most common fragrances before the discovery of synthetic materials and remain popular today. Floral notes are very widely used (not only in pure form, but also in combination with other aromatic substances) and are present in most of the created fragrances.
Floral notes usually include the following notes: rose, jasmine, tuberose, ylang-ylang, lavender, and others.
Examples of modern fragrances: Poeme Lancome, Miss Dior Blooming Bouquet, Jour Hermes, Eau de Parfum Chloe.
Subgroups and new aromatic groups:
In the composition of this group, the main thing is a woody accord. Not only natural materials obtained from wood and synthetic materials with woody notes are used, but also aromatic substances with a woody, earthy smell (for example, patchouli - the leaves of a herbaceous plant).
Woody scents usually include the following notes: sandalwood, cedar, oud, vetiver, etc.
Examples of modern fragrances: Terre d'Hermes, Bvlgari Man Wood Essence, Tam Dao Diptyque, Woodissime Mugler.
Citrus notes can often be found in other fragrance groups as the top, most volatile, notes: bergamot, for example, plays a key role in the structure of chypre and fougere aromas. The composition with a dominant citrus accord is characteristic of colognes and Mediterranean-style fragrances. The raw materials for citrus aromatic substances are both citrus fruits and other materials with a dominant citrus aroma (verbena, lemon balm and others).
Citrus aromas usually include the following notes: lemon, bergamot, tangerine, orange, and others.
Examples of modern fragrances: Cologne Mugler, Le Jardin de Monsieur Li Hermès, Cristalle Chanel, Neroli Portofino Tom Ford.
This trend appeared in the late 80s of the 20th century, when perfumers began to actively use the chemical compound Calone, which has a sea, ozone smell with melon-watermelon nuances. Aquatic fragrances were at their peak in popularity at the turn of the 90's, then the excitement for marine fragrances began to fall, but now the release of new aquatic fragrances continues.
Aquatic aromas usually include the following notes: sea / aquatic notes, seaweed, and others.
Examples of contemporary fragrances: Acqua di Gio Giorgio Armani, L'Eau d'Issey Pour Homme Issey Miyake, Eau des Merveilles Bleue Hermès.
The start of this trend was the appearance in 1992 of the fragrance Angel Thierry Mugler, the basis of which was the accord of cotton candy. In the 2010s, aromas with notes of praline, caramel, chocolate and other sweets appeared, and to this day, the popularity of gourmet aromas does not decline. The subgroup “Fruity”, which includes aromas with notes of fruits, berries, nuts and less often vegetables, can be classified as a gourmet trend, although some fruity notes (for example, peach or pear) have been used by perfumers since the mid-20th century in other fragrance groups.
Gourmet aromas usually include the following notes: praline, chocolate, peach, apple, black currant, almond, and others.
Examples of modern fragrances: Angel Muse Mugler, Wonder Bouquet Mugler, Un Jardin Sur Le Nil Hermès, La Petite Robe Noire Guerlain.
The most common aromas of mixed aromatic groups: floral fruity, oriental woody, citrus aromatic, etc. Some directions cannot be attributed to any of the groups, for example, powdery, musky, aldehyde fragrances. The division into aromatic families is based not so much on the notes / ingredients, but on the overall impression of which of these notes are most distinguishable.